I read this book on the heels of Ben Macintyre’s Double Cross, which turned out to be a nice coincidence. The titles obviously share a common World War II focus, but they also have overlapping themes of secrecy, deception, saving lives, and unsung heroes. In addition, like Macintyre’s book, The Pope’s Jews is very well written, easy to digest, thoroughly researched, and examines in detail events that rarely have been documented before this history.
Thomas is clear from the outset that he has an agenda. He maintains that Pope Pius XII has been unjustly criticized for his unwillingness to directly condemn Hitler and the Nazi atrocities as they were being perpetrated. Thomas wants to correct the impression that Pius XII was Hitler’s Pope. In fact, the author illustrates in amazing detail the extraordinary efforts to which the Pope worked to protect and save as many people as he could during World War II; Jews, allied soldiers, and anyone in harm’s way.
The book begins with some Papal background and continues through the German occupation of Italy, ending with the liberation of Rome by the Allies. Along with his historical narrative of events, the author weaves into the text portraits of those living in the Jewish Ghetto; members of the Italian, German, Allied, and Vatican governments; and a selection of Rome’s citizens.
Thomas reveals how rather than abandoning the Jewish people, the Pope used his resources to protect Jews all over Europe. Prior to the German invasion of Italy, the Pope covertly ordered priests and nuns to do everything in their power to protect and save Jews, including paying for visas and providing fake baptismal certificates to thousands of non-Catholics. Papal properties including churches, monasteries, convents, and the Vatican itself were used to hide Jews from the Nazis. When Rome was occupied by German troops, the Pope worked within his network to secretly deliver food and supplies to those hiding around the city. He used Catholic hospitals to keep Jews safe and expended church funds to save lives.
That said, circumstances also saved lives in Rome. The Germans did not occupy Rome until late in the war, by which time their resources were limited. That meant the Nazis could not transport as many Jews to concentration camps as they might otherwise have moved. While unquestionably horrible, the timing of events saved many of Rome’s Jews.
After reading The Pope’s Jews I have a renewed appreciation of the Vatican as a political entity. The actions taken by Pius XII definitely reflected his beliefs in the sanctity of human life, however, they also revealed the political and diplomatic power with which the Vatican is imbued. I understand the criticism that Pius XII did not directly oppose Nazi atrocities, yet also recognize the limitations the Pope saw on his actions and the overwhelming desire to avoid all violence. He was guided by the belief that a public denunciation of the Nazis would result in more deaths among the Jews and, it should be noted, the Catholics. One researcher estimates that Pope Pius XII’s actions saved over 700,000 Jews across Europe. While that number is difficult to substantiate, Thomas’s book makes it obvious that Pius XII used the church’s resources to protect and save as many Jews he could.
Check the WRL catalog for The Pope’s Jews.